Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
In the following video, Professor Adnan Tufail (Moorfields and UCL) introduces the structure of the eye, explains our current understanding about the processes that go wrong in wet and dry AMD, current treatment approaches and introduces the need for new and improved treatments in the future.
- More information about AMD on the Moorfields website here
- More information on AMD from the Macular Society here
Early detection of diabetic eye disease
Diabetic eye disease is a leading cause for blindness registration among working age adults in England and Wales. It is caused by changes to the tiny blood vessels of the retina (the light sensitive layer at the back of the eye). Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is caused by abnormal new blood vessels that grow on the surface of the retina. This is the most advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy. At this stage, you may not have symptoms but are at high risk for vision loss.
- More information on diabetic retinopathy in EuroTimes article here
- Download PDF from Moorfields with more information on diabetic retinopathy here
In diabetic macular oedema, blood vessels leak fluid into the retina. Vision loss occurs when the fluid reaches the macula (the centre of the retina that provides sharp vision) and builds up, causing swelling. At first, you may not notice changes to your vision. Over time, diabetic macular oedema can cause your central vision to become blurred. A healthy macula is essential for good vision.
Central serous retinopathy
Myopic retinal degeneration
Choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM) associated with pathological myopia (PM) can result in significant vision loss and legal blindness. These membranes usually occur subfoveally and are a major complication of PM, developing in approximately 5-10% of such eyes. PM is the second most common cause of choroidal neovascularization after age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and accounts for nearly 60% of CNVM cases in patients younger than age 50.
- Read more about this condition in the BJO article “Myopic choroidal neovascularisation: current concepts and update on clinical management”
Retinal vein occlusions
Occlusion (blockage) of a retinal vein is a common cause of sudden, painless reduction in vision. It occurs when a blockage, often due to a blood clot, forms in a retinal vein.
- Download PDF document from Moorfields with more information on Retinal vein occlusion
- More information on the Moorfields website here.
- Download PDF document from Moorfields with more information on Cataracts
- Download PDF document from Moorfields with information on Endophthalmitis here
Rare/Complex Retinal Disorders
There are a large array of individual rare retinal disorders that may be problematic to diagnose such as autoimmune retinopathy (“Diagnostic features of the autoimmune retinopathies” – read more here), Maternally Inherited diabetes and deafness (read more here), Sorsby dystrophy (“Clinical Course and treatment outcomes of Sorsby Fundus dystrophy” – read more here), or to manage such as punctate inner choroidopathy (“Punctate Inner Choroidopathy Clinical Features and Outcomes” – read more here).
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